Church of St Mary the Virgin, Horton Kirby, Kent, England (click images to enlarge)
“Thomas1 Scudder (T)” is the way the Scudder Association Foundation refers to the original immigrant ancestor of the Scudder (T) line in America. This designation serves to differentiate the many thousands of Thomas1 (T)’s posterity from those of his nephew John2 (J)’s line.
Thomas1 (T) was the middle son of HenryA Scudder, yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent . The lives of each of the yeoman’s three sons was affected by the Puritan movement in England. See Three Sons article.. That is why the majority of the Horton Kirby yeoman’s posterity that lived to maturity ended up in New England. Thomas1 (T)’s history is important to his many descendants who may also consider him as the beginning of their own family’s history in America, as a number of published works do.
Vital statistics and family relationships are foundation stones of biography. To present a quality biographical record for Thomas1 Scudder (T), and in order for our Journal to build the American Scudder family’s story on an accurate foundation, it is time to again refute a huge error. This issue discusses the documentary proof that Elizabeth Lowers was not Thomas1 Scudder (T)’s wife. The true maiden name of Thomas1’s wife is not known. We also show the “Somers” error.
To get to the truth it is vital to trace an error back to its origin, so C. S. Lewis says:
A wrong sum can be put right, but only by going back till you find the error and working it afresh from that point.
Errors in Scudder family history and biography generally began with mistaken interpretations:
1) misinterpretation that incorrectly assigns a primary source record to the wrong person.
2) misinterpretation of old handwriting.
3) embellishing what is in the record, for example, by assigning relationships that did not exist.
Record gathering, careful analysis of those records, discussions and teamwork eventually led to discovering the mistake about Elizabeth Lowers and why she does not belong with Thomas1 (T).
Also, essential to verifying truth is to trace back to the original fact, to a record correctly applied.
Correction #2. Thomas1 Scudder (T) did not marry Elizabeth Lowers! After discovering the will of Elizabeth Lowers’ true husband, Henry Scudder, of North Cray, Kent, the Scudder Association repeatedly published this correction that Elizabeth Lowers was another man’s wife and does not belong with Thomas1 (T) Scudder in the annals of history. Instead, Elizabeth Lowers belongs with her husband Henry Scudder and their children who are cited in his will. The parish register at North Cray corroborates their children, along with grandchildren.
Henry and Elizabeth (Lowers) Scudder’s St. James Church in North Cray, Kent, England
The first error about the identity of the wife of Thomas 1 Scudder (T) began in 1893 with Henry F. Waters in 1893 in his Genealogical Gleanings in England.  Some other printed sources repeat his rumor to assign Thomas1 Scudder (T) this other man’s wife. The Internet and old books perpetuate this mistake, citing nothing or going back to Waters’ original interpretive error.
In the 1960s, more than half a century ago, some members of the Scudder Association astutely questioned Waters’ speculation since there was no evidence in Salem, Massachusetts that Thomas1 (T) had a daughter “Martha.” Also, Lowers’ will did not state that the heirs named were residing in New England. Fifty-four years ago, the Scudder Association Bulletin announced in 1966:
Nita Baugh has made quite an exploration of wills and church records in this area, but there is still much to be done. One fact has emerged from her studies which is that the wife of Thomas Scudder of Salem was probably not Elizabeth Lowers. The mistake arose because [H. F. Waters] some years ago learned that the will of John Lowers of Darenth, Kent (1645) mentions the sons of his sister Scudder as Thomas, Henry, William and John, and the daughters as Elizabeth and Martha, which names, with the exception of the name Martha, correspond with the names of the children of Thomas and Elizabeth Scudder of Salem. The Scudder Association has never included the name of Martha as there is no record of such a person in the Salem records. Now it has come to light that the sister of John Lowers, that is Elizabeth Lowers, married Henry Scudder of North Cray, Kent. Henry, in his will (1641), gives the names of his children as quoted above, including his wife, Elizabeth, and his daughter, Martha.
Handwritten notes from the Scudder Archives papers collection on pages of correspondence among Association members, and on pages from excerpts of printed sources under discussion, refer to this error by their repeatedly writing next to Thomas1’s name: “NOT Elizabeth Lowers” or “wrong!” See this note from 1989 added to the page that shows H. F. Waters’ inaccurate speculation that started the rumor about Thomas1 (T) and his wrong “wife.”
The Association again published this correction in its second issue of Scudder Searches in 1989:
This error was made by H. F. Waters in his Genealogical Gleanings in England, based on the 1645 will of John Lowers of Darenth, Kent….In the will, Lowers mentions ‘my sister’ Scudder and names her children as Thomas, Henry, William, John, Elizabeth, and Martha. Doubts of the correctness of this identification were raised when Scudder researchers read the Lowers will, since if Thomas of Salem had a daughter Martha, she probably would have died long before 1645. Later, the 1641 will of Henry Scudder of North Cray was discovered. It proves that he, not Thomas of Salem, is the husband of Elizabeth Lowers. Thus, the surname of Thomas of Salem’s wife remains unknown.
If Thomas1 Scudder (T) did not marry Elizabeth Lowers, then who did? Thomas Scudder (T) did not marry Elizabeth Lowers as is proven by the will of Lowers’ correct husband, Henry Scudder, of North Cray, Kent, w. d. 19 May 1641, w. p. 10 Sep 1641, corroborated by the will of her brother John Lowers, w. d. 8 June 1645, w. p. 5 Feb 1650.
Medieval House from North Cray
Now reconstructed at the Weald and Downland Open Air Museum
Wills of Henry Scudder of North Cray and John Lowers of Darenth Compared
Henry Scudder of North Cray,
Will made 19 May 1641, will proved 10 Sep 1641
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PCC Evelyn 115.
[widow –Elizabeth (Lowers) Scudder]
May the xixth Anno Dm. 1641
In the name of God Amen. I
Henricus Scudder being sicke in body, but in perfect memory thankes be to almighty God for it
Imprimus ffirst and before all be[wign?] I commit my soule to allmyghty God from whome I first received yt and my bodie to the earth to be orderly and decently buried by mine executor.
Imprimis I give and bequeath unto mine eldest sonnes Thomas Scudder and Henry Scudder and William Scudder and John Scudder mine other sonnes and Elizabeth ffighit and Martha Scudder my daughters five shillings apeece
Item moreover I give to Henry Scudder my sonne a lease belonging to me from Peregrine Brittaine withall appurtenances belonging thereunto
Item I give and bequeath unto William ffigitt and Richard ffighit and Thomas ffighit and John Scudder my sonne Henry Scudders childe and my daughter Elizabeth Fighits children twelve pence apeeee to be paid by mine executor
Item I give and bequeath to my wife Elizabeth Scudder all my other good debts and chattels whatsoever whom I make my full and sole executrix of this my last will and Testament
Moreover I desired my brother John Lowers and William Ffighit my sonne in law to be mine overseers and for their paines twelve pence apeece.
Item as I said before all my other good debts and chattels I give to mine executrix to be disposed of as she sees good amongst hers and my children according to the true meaning of this my last will and Testament
Whereupon I sett my hande ye day and year above written.
Henrie Scudder his marke
John Lowers Thomas Scudder JohnScudder.
PROBATUM fuit [remainder in Latin]
London per Rouland Jennings September 1641 to Elizabeth Scudder relict
John Lowers of Darnth [sic]. husbandman.
Will made 8 Jun 1645, will proved 5 Feb 1650.
PCC Grey 22. [H. F. Waters version, 768.]
[sister -Elizabeth Scudder]
I give and bequeath unto Thomas Lowers half my part of Roxly Wood, which I hold, and my sister Scudder and Henry Scudder her son, of Mr Bugings in lease, payng yearly for that part the sum of four pounds ten shillings during the full term thereof.
To my sister Scudder’s sons, Thomas, Henry, William and John Scudder, twenty shillings apiece, and to her two daughters, Elizabeth and Martha Scudder, ten shillings apiece, to be paid within one year after my decease by my executor.
To my cousin Thomas Lowers twenty shilling within one year &c
Wife Mary to be full executor and John Umphrey of Darenth yeoman, and Thomas Lowers of Dartford, husbandman, to be overseers. [Grey, 27]
It is clear from both wills, and from the North Cray parish registers, that Elizabeth (Lowers) Scudder, John Lowers’ sister, and her children were still living at North Cray in 1645 when Lowers made his will. This was well after Thomas (T) was documented at Salem, Massachusetts beginning on 25 December 1637.
The North Cray parish register, as well as her correct husband’s will, definitely documents that Elizabeth (Lowers) Scudder and her children were not to be found in New England and did not belong to Thomas1 Scudder (T). North Cray parish register shows at least 16 grandchildren for Henry and Elizabeth (Lowers) Scudder were christened at North Cray between 1638–1655:
Henry II md. Elizabeth Eliot at North Cray Kent (St. James) on 19 Sep 1637. Henry’s children were: Ann, 1638; John, 1640; Henry, 1644; Dorothee, 1647; Martha 1650; William, 1651; Thomas, 1653; Robert, 1654; George, 1656.
Thomas’s children: Thomas, 1647; John, 1650; Henry, 1652; Martha, 1654; Ann, 1656; William, 1661.
John’s children: Barbara, 1654; Dorothy, 1655.
North Cray to Bexley, Google Maps
North Cray was originally in Kent but is now a neighborhood in Sidcup, Bexley, London.
The specific relationship of Henry of North Cray to Thomas (T) and to other Scudders of Horton Kirby, Kent is not known. There were Scudders clustered at North Cray and Bexley, etc. along the Cray River in the Cray Valley. They have no defined relationship to Scudders in Darenth, Horton Kirby, Sutton Hone and Stone in the Darent Valley to the east of the Cray Valley and were situated on the east side of the Darent River. As noted in the Scudder Archives, by one who had visited both valleys, the Darent river and some woods were topographical barriers between.
Henry of North Cray’s 1641 will and the North Cray parish registers clearly show they were not the same family as that of Thomas Scudder (T) who arrived in Salem, Massachusetts four years before Henry of North Cray made his will in England. Henry’s widow Elizabeth (Lowers) Scudder was alive at North Cray, as were their children, until at least 1645 when John Lowers made his will. Grandchildren were recorded on the North Cray register until at least 1661.
North Cray Place, 1818
As also noted by earlier Association historians in their papers, another needed correction is that Thomas1 did not marry a fictitious Elizabeth “Somers.” Somers was invented by Moses Bigelow’s apparent misreading of “Lowers” written in cursive. This mistake also unfortunately made it into print in Bigelow’s The Scudder Family of Trenton and a few have continued that error. Bigelow’s “source” was the will of John “Somers” that has the same data as the will of John Lowers, so incorrectly applied anyway. The maiden name of the wife of Thomas1 Scudder (T) was not Lowers or Somers and those surnames do not belong anywhere in the Horton Kirby Scudder family. Overzealousness to ascribe a maiden surname to a wife can corrupt history.
These errors are still circulating to pollute the accurate history of Thomas1 (T) and some histories of his posterity. These include Dr. John Scudder’s branch of Thomas1 (T)’s family who began the hospitals and schools in India to which the Scudder Association Foundation currently devotes its philanthropic efforts. Such errors have corrupted credibility of printed histories and websites.
Dr. John Scudder M.D.
The family heritage from Thomas1 (T) is often noted in biographical information about the Scudder missionary family in America and is often included in biographical information for other family members. To some, the relationship to the immigrants may seem remote, but to others, that is where they like to begin their accounts of their own history.
To put things in perspective from their viewpoint, Dr. John Scudder was born in 1793, only one hundred years after the death of his great-great-great-grandfather Thomas2 Scudder, the immigrant son of Thomas1 (T), the (T) line’s immigrant ancestor. It is not unusual for persons then and now to personally know five generations of their family and to retell their stories. Dr. John7 Scudder’s grandfather, Nathaniel5 Scudder, was born at Huntington, New York in 1733, where his great-grandfather Thomas2, son of Thomas1 (T) had lived since 1658.
The Homestead, 1865, by James Long Scudder
By handing down their stories, the Scudder family for generations had kept the memory of their Scudder heritage and progenitors very much alive. Dr. John Scudder was born while George Washington was president and a number of Dr. John Scudder’s relatives in New York and New Jersey had assisted Washington in forming the new nation. That included Dr. John’s grandfather, Nathaniel5 Scudder, who was the only member of the Continental Congress to die in battle in the American Revolutionary War. The family had motivation to keep their history alive.
Judging from the many references to Thomas1 Scudder (T) still multiplying online today, to his very large posterity, Thomas 1(T) continues to be a relevant part of many people’s story.
Having the benefit of some of the Association’s findings, in 1997, Jane Fletcher Fiske published “A New England Kinship Network” in The American Genealogist that did help to spread the word about the Elizabeth Lowers error:
Speculation that Elizabeth was the ‘sister Scudder’ named in the will of John Lowers of Darenth, Kent, dated 8 June 1645 and proved on 5 February 1650, is incorrect. Sister Scudder and her children named in the Lowers will match wife and children named in the will of Henry Scudder of North Cray, Kent, which also names brother John Lowers.
Then, who was Elizabeth ___? wife of Thomas1 Scudder (T) of Horton Kirby and Salem?
A New England Kitchen in the Olden Time
No maiden name is given in any primary sources to reveal the true identity of the immigrant Thomas1 (T)’s wife Elizabeth ___? Her maiden surname is not known because there is no marriage record extant to name her, not surprising since their marriage occurred prior to Horton Kirby’s surviving parish records and prior to those of other pertinent neighboring parishes. No direct or other firsthand evidence such as a parent’s will or land deeds or other primary source has been found that reveals the maiden name of Thomas1’s wife, Elizabeth ____?
Likewise, no record has been found to reveal the maiden name of Thomas1 (T)’s mother who is also referred to as a different Elizabeth ____? Mistaken claims for a maiden surname for Thomas1’s mother exist but only in conjunction with inaccurate materials that give other errors such as the family’s wrong county of origin refuted in the 2019 Journal nos. 1 and 2 Online Journal.
The River Darent from the Darent Valley Path, Lullingstone Country Park
Many other very early New England families have been inaccurately connected to “relatives” in England through similar speculative mistakes based solely on similar names—or in some cases even fraudulent work. The English history of the birth family of Thomas (T), the immigrant to America, would not be known, or fully documented, except for the corroborating data among the wills of Rev. Henry Scudder , a well-known clergyman and author in England, HenryA Scudder, yeoman of Horton Kirby and his brother WilliamA Scudder of Darenth .
Another error we have seen made, assigns Thomas1 (T)’s mother the death date of a different widow Elizabeth ___? Scudder, w. d. in 1617 at Cobham, Kent, who was wife of a George. There were lots of widow Scudders and several different ones named widow Elizabeth Scudder. Also by the end of the 16th century, there were many different Scudder family units residing in a number of different villages in northwestern Kent who gave their children similar names. Almost every nuclear family for five generations in that area used the same given names of Henry, Thomas, John and William, Elizabeth, Bridgett, etc. There were too many same-named people to accurately assign relationships without deep research in wills and parish registers and caution.
Thomas1 Scudder (T)’s Early Life in England
To begin his story, Thomas1 (T) was born at or near Horton Kirby where his father resided when he made his will within a decade of the time of Thomas1 (T)’s birth. There is no record of the date of Thomas1 (T)’s baptism or birth because Horton Kirby parish records for that time period have not survived. Scudders were entrenched at Horton Kirby and its close environs on the east side of the Darent River for it was the ancestral home of Thomas1’s branch of the Scudder family for at least five generations before him. Most of what is known about them comes from wills.
Postcard of Horton Kirby, date unknown
Baptism, marriage and burial records for Horton Kirby are not available before 1636 and 1678, or for Darenth, Sutton-at-Hone or Stone-near-Dartford during the time period needed. Dates for the births of Thomas1 and his siblings are presently estimated from the order listed in their yeoman father HenryA’s will and its other clues mentioned. HenryA Scudder, yeoman of Horton Kirby, who is proven to be Thomas1 (T)’s father, died as a relatively young man, probably in his late 40s, leaving most of his children in their minority. His daughter Elizabeth, and possibly Bridget, were the ones the will suggests were of age or near age.
A comparison of the properties devised and relationships cited in wills of HenryA, yeoman of Horton Kirby, his brother WilliamA of Darenth and Rev. Henry1 Scudder are the firm basis from which we can document their accurate relationships.
Thomas1’s near extended family clustered at or near Horton Kirby, known anciently as the parish of Horton, with particular family members also mentioned at Darenth and Stone-near-Dartford.
After his marriage in England, and after the births of all of their children, Thomas1 and his family immigrated to Salem, Massachusetts by 25 December 1637. Again the vital data for their children is lacking due to no available records for their parish in their time period. When they immigrated, the ages of the five children of Thomas1 and Elizabeth ____? may have ranged from about eleven to twenty-two. Thomas1’s family is not listed on any emigration records from England that survive. Had there been a passenger list for them preserved, it would have likely given their ages but years of teamwork to find their emigration data have not been rewarded. The only Puritan migration immigrant in the Scudder family who was recorded on extant emigration records from England was nephew John2 Scudder (J) in 1635.
Section of Salem where Thomas1 Scudder, his wife Elizabeth ___? and their children lived
Editors David B. Scudder and Janet J. Bitler, in their volume 1, no. 2, (Summer 1989), Scudder Searches, warned of these long-lasting and disruptive consequences from speculation, misinterpretation and records applied in error to the wrong person. We repeat their earnest plea:
There are several old Scudder family history errors, some originating more than one-hundred years ago, that still continue to raise their heads. Although all or most have been corrected in various issues of the Scudder Association Bulletin (published 1936–81), they seem to have a life of their own and just don’t go away. This note is intended to call attention to them and thus lay to lay them to rest, once and for all.
As they state, mistakes “have a life of their own.” They can multiply like fake news. With our readers’ help, we hope word will finally get around the Internet sufficiently to end, once and for all, these Lowers and Somers mistakes that give incorrect identities to the wife of Thomas1 Scudder (T). In this issue we have taken great pains to show how and where these errors from speculation began, hoping that the history of the American Scudder family can now be built on data from proven record sources going forward.
Aware that we too may make inadvertent errors or may have missed a pertinent primary source record that can be accurately applied or a recent article in a scholarly journal, we acknowledge the continuing need for teamwork. We invite our readers to help us to make the Scudder Family Historical and Biographical Journal a valuable record for many generations of the Scudder family as error free as possible. If you have corrections or documentary evidence for discussion in this or future articles, please contact the Foundation’s historian.
With our readers’ help, because of all the errors in print and online, we hope word will finally get around to end the Elizabeth Lowers and Elizabeth Somers mistakes “once and for all” and, to finally let Thomas Scudder (T) have his accurate wife. We think Mrs. Elizabeth ___? Scudder would appreciate that too. She would likely rather have no maiden name than the wrong one.
Many details of his life remain unknown but using what is available from the historical records of Salem, Mass. and from the Scudder Archives papers collected since 1912, in future articles we will add more to the story of the family of Thomas1 Scudder (T) and his wife Elizabeth ____?
To Be Continued:
Oast House Archive, “St Mary the Virgin parish church, Horton Kirby, Kent, (30 August 2010), geograph.org.uk, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Church_of_St_Mary_the_Virgin,_Horton_Kirby,_Kent_(Geograph_Image_2050725_8189cb5b).jpg. [Accessed 12/29/2019.] Shared at Wikimedia Commons.
 D. B. Scudder, “Henry Skudder, yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent,” Scudder Searches, volume IV, no. 3, (Summer 1992): 3–5; “Our Story Begins with Henry Skudder (Scudder), Yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent,” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 1, no. 1, (April 2019), reprint from Scudder Searches cited above.
 The Scudder Association knew about the Elizabeth Lowers error prior to publishing its Bulletin, XXIII, (August 1966): 14, and its subsequent issues that refer to Thomas1(T)’s wife as Elizabeth ___? The Association also repeatedly published this correction in Scudder Searches from 1989–1993.
 C. S. Lewis, The Great Divorce.
 Ethan Doyle White, “St James’ Church in North Cray, London Borough of Bexley. As seen from the east of the building,” https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:St_James%27_Church_in_North_Cray.jpg. [Accessed 12/20/2019.] At the time of records for the family of Henry of North Cray, North Cray and Bexley were considered Kent County and were not part of London as they are now.
 Henry F. Waters, Genealogical Gleanings in England, 1833–1913, v. 1, 768–769, https://archive.org/details/genealogicalglea01byuwate/page/768.
 Waters, 768–769.
 Bulletin, Scudder Association, volume XXIII (August 1966): 4–5.
 While we now again warn of Waters’ speculation that caused this error to multiply, we do appreciate Waters’ publishing his transcription of the Lowers will and the will of Thomas (T)’s uncle, William Scudder of Darenth, that we reprinted in our Journal’s previous issue. Waters claimed he read over a quarter of a million wills, an amazing feat, and he should receive credit for his efforts, for many families in America have benefitted from his work in England. Although Waters’ assumption about Thomas (T)’s wife being a sister to John Lowers was mistaken, Waters was correct about Thomas1 (T)’s relationship to William Scudder of Darenth, Kent whose will immediately succeeds the Lowers’ will on page 769. For explanation about Waters’ project, see vii–viii.
 Waters, 768–769.
 Scudder Searches, volume I, no. 2, (Summer 1989): 6–7.
 Scudder Searches, volume I, no. 2, (Summer 1989): 16.
 “Medieval House from North Cray, Kent,” reconstructed 1984 at Weald & Downland Living Museum, in Singleton, West Sussex, England, https://www.wealddown.co.uk/buildings/north-cray/.
For a 360º panoramic interior view see Ian Humes, http://www.ianhumes.co.uk/pages/vr-wealddown-01.html.
For information about the dismantling and reconstruction of the house, see “The Festival of Building and Erection of North Cray Hall House—Museum’s Major Summer Event,” Weald & Downland Open Air Museum, Members’ Magazine, No. 21, March 1984, 1, https://www.wealddown.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/1984-03-Members-Magazine-No-21.pdf.
 Scudder Association Archives, Box RAS 1.3 and “England & Wales, Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, 1384–1858 for Henry Scudder,” [of North Cray], Prob 11: Will Registers, 1624–1643, Piece 187: Evelyn, Quire Numbers 1-5–155 (1641), at Ancestry, https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/5111/40611_310650-00134/795496?backurl=&ssrc=&backlabel=Return.
 See endnote 37.
 “Church of England, Parish Church of North Cray (Kent),” Kent County Archives Office, microfilm at Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT, FHL British Film, 1,042,461, It. 1–10.
 See North Cray parish register and record cited at findmypast.com,
 Scudder Archives, Scudder Association, Box 36.166.
 John Hassell, “North Cray Place, the seat of Henry Meux Esq,”1818, Government Art Collection, https://www.parksandgardens.org/places/north-cray-place. [Accessed 30 December 2019.]
 Scudder Archives, Box 36.166.
 Moses Bigelow, comp., The Scudder Family of Trenton, (for Antoinette Quinby Scudder of Newark, Somerset Press, 1948), 3. Bigelow has numerous other errors.
 Hamilton Cochran, Scudders In The American Revolution, (Published by The Scudder Association, Inc., 1976), 90; and “Benjamin Scudder I, of Huntington, NY,” Scudder Searches, volume II, no. 2, (Spring 1990): 4–5.
 James Long Scudder, The Homestead, 1865, courtesy of the Huntington Historical Society, Huntington, N.Y.
 Cochran’s book is only one example of the honor paid to the Scudder history and heritage by descendants. The Scudder Association Foundation is another serious manifestation of continuing Scudder family interest as are the extensive family historical papers gathered since 1912.
 Hamilton Cochran, Scudders In The American Revolution, (Published by the Scudder Association, Inc., 976), 99.
 Jane Fletcher Fiske, “A New England Immigrant Kinship Network,” The American Genealogist, volume 72 (July/October 1997): 293. Fiske cites PCC 115 Evelyn; Scudder Searches 1, no. 2:15.
 “A New England Kitchen,” ClipArt, etc., https://etc.usf.edu/clipart/80100/80115/80115_nekitchen.htm. Source: Edward Taylor, The Model History (Chicago, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1900).
 N Chadwick, The River Darent from the Darent Valley Path, Lullingstone Country Park,
https://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1735279, licensed for reuse under Creative Commons Licence, date taken, 27 February 2010, date submitted, 4 March 2010.
 One fraudulent genealogist who has polluted the historical information for hundreds of early American families was Gustave Anjou. He did this to the Lothrops and Huntingtons, both families that are mentioned in other articles in this issue of volume 1, no. 3, (2019), the Scudder Family Historical and Biographical Journal. The foundational works for the Lothrop and Huntington families are:
- E. B. Huntington’s 1884 A Genealogical Memoir of the Lo-Lathrop family… and E. B. Huntington’s A Genealogical Memoir of the Huntington Family…1863 version. These are safe from Anjou’s deceptions, having preceded his work, but Anjou polluted the 1915 version of the Huntington Memoir redone by the Huntington Family Association, by adding fictional errors about their English origins.
See these professional articles that warn of Anjou’s fraudulent errors:
Robert Charles Anderson, “We Wuz Robbed! The modus operandi of Gustave Anjou,” and Gordon L. Remington, ‘Gustave, We Hardly Knew Ye: A portrait of Herr Anjou as a Junberg,” in Genealogical Journal, volume 19 nos. 1 and 2, (1991). Also discussed in Clifford L Stott, “Appendix: Angevin Errors,” The American Genealogist, (October 1995): 252, https://www.americanancestors.org/databases/american-genealogist-the/image?volumeId=13130&pageName=250&rId=234371181.
 Prerogative Court of Canterbury Wills, 1384–1858 for Elizabeth Scudder, prob 11: Will Registers, 1599–1623, Piece 130: Weldon, Quire Numbers 64–125 (1617), https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?_phsrc=zvO4&_phstart=successSource&usePUBJs=true&indiv=1&dbid=5111&gsln=Scudder&msddy=1617&new=1&rank=1&uidh=5v2&redir=false&msT=1&gss=angs-d&pcat=36&fh=0&h=887425&recoff=&ml_rpos=1.
 Will of Henry Scudder, of Horton, w. d. 14 July 1504, w. p. 9 Nov. 1504. See “Table, Scudder Wills and Related Documents 1492–1651,” Scudder Searches, volume IV, no. 4, (Fall 1992): 4–5.
 E. A. Sweetman & Son, Ltd., Tunbridge Wells, 53328, “The Boys’ Homes, Horton Kirby, nr. Dartford,” date unknown, from Scudder Archives, Box 36.17.
 Earliest reference found by author to baptisms and marriages at Horton Kirby is 1634. Church of England, Parish Church of Horton-Kirby (Kent), 3 microfiches, manuscript typescript, Canterbury, England: Kent Family History Society c1985, FHL British Microfiche, 6341239, Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT, https://www.worldcat.org/title/parish-registers-of-horton-kirby-kent-1307-1874/oclc/866066904.
Other sources start at 1678 or 1684, well after Thomas1 Scudder (T)’s family left for America.
From 1678: Parish registers of Horton-Kirby, 1678–1876, Church of England, 9 volumes, Kent Archives Office, Maidstone, Kent, England and Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT, British Film 992523, Item 2. From 1684: W. Bruce Bannerman, The Parish Registers of Horton Kirbie, co. Kent, (London: Privately printed, (LXXIX)).
 And further analysis of family data from the will of HenryA Scudder, yeoman of Horton Kirby, Kent, in Appendix I of a manuscript by the author soon to be published.
 Scudder Association Archives, Box 36.17.
 “English Scudder Research: Taking Another Step Forward,” Scudder Searches, volume IV, no. 4, (Fall 1992): 3–7.
 References to land records for Thomas Scudder at Salem are from David B. Scudder and Janet Bitler, Scudder Searches, Scudder Association, volume I, no. 2, (Summer 1989): 14. Dates of receipt of land: 25 December 1637; 30 Jan 1640; 23 Nov 1642; 30 May 1649. Cited from Sidney Perley, The History of Salem, Massachusetts (Salem: 1924), 460–465.
 Charles E. Banks, The Planters of the Commonwealth, (Boston: The Riverside Press for Houghton Mifflin, 1930), 152.
 Section taken from William Phineas Upham, Map of Salem, 1692, “Specimen illustration from A History of the United States and its People by Elroy McKendree Avery,” (Ohio: Burrows Bros., ca. 1904), https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1692_Salem_Massachusetts_map_BPL_12894.png. [Accessed 12/30/2019.]
 Scudder Searches, volume I, no. 2, (Summer 1989): 2.